Water is an essential for all living organism. In fact no life is possible without water. Bore wells are the common source for water in rural as well as urban areas. In summers the water level decreases and at some water deficient areas, the bore wells give-up the supply and get dry. In our ecosystem the water cycle or hydrological cycle in which water carried out from lakes, oceans, rivers, ponds etc in the form of water vapors. These vapors forms cloud and again these clouds turn into rain and supply water. Thus rain water is the natural source of water. Most of the rain water runoff through surface.
Water beneath the earth surface remain stock in the soil pores spaces and fractures of rock formation. This reservoir of water is utilized while using a bore well. Bore well work as a straw to extract the water for our needs with the help of electric water pumps. In summers the water level goes down and sometimes the bore well doesn’t supply the water after being dry. The water beneath the surface act as a good and efficient reservoir for various sources of water discharge into the earth surface.
Putting some extra effort to recharge this natural reservoirs beneath the earth is known as Bore well Recharging. Bore well recharging is best practice to conserve rain water and get rid of water crises in summers. Most of the rain water runoff through surface and can’t be utilized. Thus the rain water harvesting is the best practice to minimize the surface runoff and utilize the water at the time of water crises. The rain water harvesting involves collection of rain water and reserving or discharging it to the bore well in order to reserve it beneath the earth surface. There are many techniques implemented by many enthusiasts to do so. Almost all work on same theory with different designs. The design and techniques mostly depends of the bore well location weather it is at home or farm land. At homes it is quite difficult to have more space around the bore wells but in farms space can be acquired to recharging. At homes terrace can be used as space for rain water collection.
Sankalpa Rural Development Society (SRDS), a nonprofit organization in India came up with an innovative way of doing direct bore well recharge at a fraction of the cost of digging new one. SRDS developed rain water harvesting techniques and did bore well recharging for many farmers to help them in irrigating their crops even in dry summer months.
The Method of Recharging the Bore well with rain water
1. A pit of size 10 x 10 feet is dig around the bore well.
2. A small pond is excavated nearby the pit.(Only for farm land bore wells at urban places different techniques are applied)
3. Around the walls of the pit which is also called percolation pit, stone pitching of 3 inch thickness is done. This stone pitching prevents the soil to dissolve and maintain the size of pit.
4. A 3 inch layer of sand is made at bottom of pit. This layer act as a filtration layer.
5. Bore well casing pipe is drilled with holes and coved with mesh to ensure only water will go into the bore well.
6. Cement rings are concreted together around the casing pipe and left open.
7. Outside the cement rings the pit is filled with sand stone and gravels.
8. The excavated pond act as a catchment area and transfer rain water to the pit.
9. The water get filtered in the pit with stones, gravels and sand, seeps into the circular ring from the bottom and fills around the bore well casing.
10. Through protective mesh this clean filtered water enters into the bore well.
It’s an eco friendly and cost effective technique to keep bore wells alive throughout the year.